Carta 18: Sobre Festivais e Jejum

As Cartas oferecem algo além da filosofia: você tem vislumbres ocasionais da vida privada de Sêneca, bem como da vida em Roma no auge do poder imperial. Esse é um ótimo bônus além do conhecimento filosófico!

Esta é uma de minhas cartas prediletas, onde Sêneca dá o conselho de não se abster de se divertir, mas simplesmente não exagerar: “Mostra-se muito mais coragem permanecendo abstêmio e sóbrio quando a multidão está bêbada e vomitando; mas mostra maior autocontrole recusar-se a se afastar e fazer o que a multidão faz, mas de uma maneira diferente, portanto, não se tornando conspícuo nem se tornando um dentre as multidões. Pois pode-se guardar os festivais sem extravagância.”(XVIII.4)

É exatamente assim que me sinto no Carnaval,  no Natal e assim por diante. Claro que queremos nos divertir e compartilhar um momento agradável da vida com nossa família e amigos. Mas nós temos que ficar bêbados ou doentes por comer demais para fazer isso?

Sêneca então aproveita o tópico em questão para apresentar um ponto mais geral sobre um exercício estoico padrão, auto-privação moderada:

 “separe determinados dias em que você se retirará de seus negócios e ficará em casa com a alimentação da mais escassa. Estabeleça relações diplomáticas com a pobreza. Desafie, ó amigo meu, desprezar o ponto de vista da riqueza, e molde-se com afinidade com seu Deus Pois só aquele está em afinidade com Deus, que pode desprezar a riqueza. É óbvio que não o proíbo de possuí-la, mas gostaria que chegasse ao ponto em que a possuísse intrepidamente; isso só pode ser realizado persuadindo-se de que você pode viver feliz sem ela, bem como com ela, e sempre considerando que as riquezas podem possivelmente lhe iludir.“(XVIII.12-13)

(imagem Antoine-François Callet (1741 – 1823) interpretação barroca da  Saturnalia – 1783)

XVIII. Sobre Festivais e Jejum

Saudações de Sêneca a Lucílio.

  1. É quase dezembro, e mesmo assim a cidade está neste momento em um mormaço. A licença é dada para a folia geral. Tudo ressoa com poderosos preparativos, como se as Saturnálias[1] diferissem do dia-a-dia usual! Tão verdadeiro é que a diferença seja nula, que considero correta a observação do homem que disse: “Uma vez dezembro foi um mês, agora é um ano.”
  2. Se eu tivesse você comigo, eu ficaria feliz em trocar ideias e descobrir o que você acha que deve ser feito, – se devemos mudar nada em nossa rotina diária, ou se, nem que por compaixão com os costumes populares, nós devamos jantar em uma maneira mais alegre e despir a toga. Tal como é, nós, os romanos, trocamos nossas roupas por causa do feriado[2], embora em tempos antigos isso acontecia somente quando o Estado estava perturbado e caíra em desgraça.
  3. Tenho a certeza de que, se eu o conheço bem, desempenhando o papel de um árbitro, teria desejado que não fôssemos nem como a multidão libertina em todos os sentidos, nem diferentes deles em absolutamente todos os aspectos; a menos que, talvez, esta seja apenas a época em que devamos estabelecer lei à alma, e pedir que seja a única a abster-se de prazeres quando a multidão inteira se deixa ir em prazeres; pois esta é a prova mais segura que um homem pode obter de sua própria constância, se ele não busca as coisas que são sedutoras e o tentam ao luxo, nem é levado para elas.
  4. Mostra-se muito mais coragem permanecendo abstêmio e sóbrio quando a multidão está bêbada e vomitando; mas mostra maior autocontrole recusar-se a se afastar e fazer o que a multidão faz, mas de uma maneira diferente, portanto, não se tornando conspícuo nem se tornando um dentre as multidões. Pois pode-se guardar os festivais sem extravagância.
  5. Estou tão firmemente decidido, no entanto, a testar a constância de sua mente que, extraindo dos ensinamentos de grandes homens, eu também lhe darei uma lição: reserve um certo número de dias, durante os quais você se contentará com a alimentação mais barata e escassa, com vestes grosseiras e ásperas, dizendo a si mesmo: “É esta a situação que eu temia?”
  6. É precisamente em tempos despreocupados que a alma deve endurecer-se de antemão para ocasiões de maior estresse, e é enquanto a fortuna é amável que se deve fortalecer contra violência. Em dias de paz, o soldado executa manobras, lança obras de terraplenagem sem inimigo à vista, e se exercita, a fim de se tornar indiferente a labuta inevitável. Se você não quer que um homem recue quando a crise chegar, treine-o antes que ela chegue. Tal é o curso que esses homens seguiram, que, em sua imitação de pobreza, quase todos os meses chegavam quase à miséria, de forma que eles nunca recuarão do que ensaiaram com tanta frequência.
  7. Você não precisa supor que eu quero dizer refeições como Tímon[3], ou “cabines de homem pobre[4]“, ou qualquer outro dispositivo que luxuosos milionários usam para enganar o tédio de suas vidas. Deixe a cama de palha ser real, e o manto grosseiro; deixe o pão ser duro e sujo. Resistir a tudo isso por três ou quatro dias por vez, às vezes por mais, para que possa ser um teste de si mesmo em vez de um mero passatempo. Então, asseguro-lhe, meu querido Lucílio, que saltará de alegria quando obtiver um centavo de comida, e compreenderá que a paz de espírito de um homem não depende da fortuna; pois, mesmo quando irritada ela concede o suficiente para as nossas necessidades.
  8. Não há nenhuma razão, entretanto, para que você deva pensar que você está fazendo qualquer coisa grande; porque você estará apenas fazendo o que muitos milhares de escravos e muitos milhares de pobres estão fazendo todos os dias. Mas você pode creditar-se com este item, – que você não vai fazê-lo sob coação, e que será tão fácil para você suportá-lo permanentemente tanto como para fazer experiência de vez em quando. Vamos praticar nossos golpes no “boneco”; nos fazer íntimos com a pobreza, para que a fortuna não nos pegue despreparados. Seremos ricos com mais conforto, se uma vez descobrirmos que a pobreza está longe de ser um fardo.
  9. Mesmo Epicuro, o professor de prazer, costumava observar intervalos declarados, durante os quais ele satisfazia a sua fome de maneira sovina; desejava ver se, assim, ficava aquém da plena e completa felicidade e, se fosse assim, em que quantia ficava aquém, e se essa quantidade valia a pena comprar ao preço de um grande esforço. De qualquer forma, ele faz tal declaração na conhecida carta escrita a Polieno[5]. Na verdade, ele se vangloria de que ele próprio viveu com menos de um centavo, mas que Metrodoro, cujo progresso ainda não era tão grande, precisava de um centavo inteiro.
  10. Você acha que pode haver plenitude em tal alimentação? Sim, e há prazer também, – não aquele prazer falso e fugaz que precisa de um estímulo de vez em quando, mas um prazer que é firme e seguro. Pois, embora a água, a farinha de cevada e as crostas de pão de cevada não sejam uma dieta alegre, no entanto, é o tipo mais elevado de prazer poder obter alegria deste tipo de alimento e ter reduzido suas necessidades a esse mínimo que nenhuma injustiça da fortuna possa arrebatar.
  11. Mesmo comida prisional é mais generosa; e aqueles que foram condenados à pena de morte não são tão mal alimentados pelo homem que deve executá-los. Portanto, que uma alma nobre se deve ter, para descer de próprio arbítrio a uma dieta que mesmo aqueles que foram condenados à morte receariam! Isso é de fato prevenir-se das lanças da má fortuna.
  12. Comece então, meu caro Lucílio, siga o costume destes homens, e separe determinados dias em que você se retirará de seus negócios e ficará em casa com a alimentação da mais escassa. Estabeleça relações diplomáticas com a pobreza. Desafie, ó amigo meu, desprezar o ponto de vista da riqueza, e molde-se com afinidade com seu Deus.
  13. Pois só aquele está em afinidade com Deus, que pode desprezar a riqueza. É óbvio que não o proíbo de possuí-la, mas gostaria que chegasse ao ponto em que a possuísse intrepidamente; isso só pode ser realizado persuadindo-se de que você pode viver feliz sem ela, bem como com ela, e sempre considerando que as riquezas podem possivelmente lhe iludir.
  14. Mas agora devo começar a dobrar a minha carta. “Pague sua dívida primeiro”, você clama. Aqui está um texto de Epicuro; ele vai pagar a conta: “Raiva desgovernada produz loucura.” Você não pode evitar saber a verdade dessas palavras, já que você teve não só escravos, mas também inimigos.
  15. Mas, de fato, esta emoção resplandece contra todas as espécies de pessoas; brota tanto do amor quanto do ódio, e se mostra não menos em assuntos sérios do que em brincadeira e esporte. E não faz diferença a importância da provocação, mas em que tipo de alma ela penetra. Da mesma forma com o fogo; não importa quão grande é a chama, mas sobre o que ela cai. Pois madeiras sólidas têm repelido um fogo muito grande; por outro lado, matéria seca e facilmente inflamável nutre a menor chama em um incêndio. Assim é com raiva, meu caro Lucílio; o resultado de uma raiva poderosa é a loucura, e, portanto, a raiva deve ser evitada, não apenas para que possamos escapar do excesso, mas para que possamos ter uma mente saudável.

Mantenha-se Forte. Mantenha-se Bem.


 

[1] Saturnália era um festival da Antiga Roma em honra ao deus Saturno, se estendendo com festividades até 23 de dezembro. O feriado era celebrado com um sacrifício no Templo de Saturno, no Fórum Romano. Um banquete público, seguido de troca de presentes em privado, festa contínua e uma atmosfera de carnaval que derrubava as normas sociais romanas.

[2] O pilleus era usado por escravos recém-libertados e pela população romana em ocasiões festivas.

[3] Tímon de Fliunte, filho de Timarco, foi um filósofo cético grego, pupilo de Pirro de Élis, célebre autor de poemas satíricos.

[4] Os homens ricos às vezes instalavam em seus palácios uma imitação de “cabine de homem pobre”, por contraste com os outros quartos ou como um gesto para uma vida simples.

[5] Polieno de Lâmpsaco foi anteriormente um matemático da Grécia Antiga e posteriormente um discípulo de Epicuro. Apesar de matemático, diz-se que convenceu Epicuro de que a geometria era um desperdício de tempo.

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